Security in Windows Server 2019

At the end of last December, Microsoft published a document titled What’s new in Windows Server 2019, covering the new features and renewed functionalities provided by the new version of Windows Server. This post will focus on those features related to security improvements provided by Windows Defender ATP that had already been seen in Windows 10 through Windows Defender Exploit Guard, EMET (Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit, which ceased to have support last July 31, 2018), as well as WDAC (Windows Defender Application Control).... Leer Más

EternalSilence: Why your router may be at risk from this NSA tool

Today’s article is courtesy of John Mason, co-founder of  TheBestVPN.com and writer at TripwireStaySafeOnline, DigitalGuardian y Educause. You can find him on twitter as @JohnCyberMason.

Do you trust your router to keep you safe from hackers and spies? You may want to take another look just to make sure.

Akamai recently discovered a malware campaign that has already compromised over 45,113 home and office routers. This was done using a tool based on the United States of America’s NSA hacking tools which were leaked online in 2017. To explain how hackers use this tool to turn your router into a proxy server, we first have to understand how UPnP works.

UPnP is a protocol that eases device and service discovery as well as the configuration of consumer devices and networks. Its primary purpose was to allow devices on a LAN to automatically expose services and functionality other devices on the local network.

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Who takes responsibility for errors made by smart robots?

As those of us who are interested in robotics know, ir represents one of the great technological advances of the 21st century. However, for this progress to be properly made, it must be accompanied by a transparent and dynamic regulatory framework that unifies and clarifies the uncertainties it generates. However, today there is no such regulatory framework at national, European or international level.

However, there are two references that are worth considering.

Firstly, the recommendation of the European Parliament (Draft Report with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103(INL)) for the establishment of a set of rules on liability. In the face of a possible “new industrial revolution” in which society enters an age of robots, bots, androids and other more advanced forms of AI, it is imperative that the legislator consider the consequences that may result from the use and implantation of these devices in our daily lives.

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Analysis of Linux.Omni

Following our classification and analysis of the Linux and IoT threats currently active, in this article we are going to investigate a malware detected very recently in our honeypots, the Linux.Omni botnet. This botnet has particularly attracted our attention due to the numerous vulnerabilities included in its repertoire of infection (11 different in total), being able to determine, finally, that it is a new version of IoTReaper.

Analysis of the binary

The first thing that strikes us is the label given to the malware at the time of infection of the device, i.e., OMNI, because these last few weeks we were detecting OWARI, TOKYO, SORA, ECCHI… all of them versions of Gafgyt or Mirai and, which do not innovate much compared to what was reported in previous articles.

So, analyzing the method of infection, we find the following instructions:

As you can see, it is a fairly standard script and, therefore, imported from another botnet. Nothing new.

Although everything indicated that the sample would be a standard variant of Mirai or Gafgyt, we carried out the sample download. [Read more…]

Analysis of Linux.Haikai: inside the source code

A few days ago we got the source code of the Haikai malware, which corresponds to one of the many implementations carried out by the continuous recycling of source code belonging to different IoT botnets. Although we have not identified any new developments compared to previous IoT malware versions, it has allowed us to obtain a lot of information on techniques, improvements and authors.

It should also be noted that, according to different records obtained, this botnet has been in operation for most of the last month of June.

In the following lines the code will be analyzed, as well as the possible attributions and the implementations not referenced in the execution thread, which allow us to guess that the code is mutating in different lines in parallel for the same function.

So let’s start by analyzing the structure of the files. [Read more…]

Simple & crazy covert channels (I): Asciinema (en)

In the preparation of our audits, we often waste a lot of time developing tools that require a lot of work and, in many cases, do not go unnoticed by those users with a more technical profile.
However, there are other simpler (and equally effective) methods to carry out the exfiltration of information, such as through tools that were not initially designed for this purpose and which, with relatively simple adjustments, allow us to carry it out.

Thus, in the following article the analysis of the asciinema tool will be carried out, as well as the different possibilities of use and how it can be integrated with an attack vector.

Asciinema is a very nice tool that I usually use for demos whose sole function is to register the user’s session and to provide a URL that allows us to easily share the user’s activity. Very valuable information that can be used in a malicious way.

Below, we will see if we could use it as a Linux keylogger and what modifications would be necessary to apply.
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Evading AV with Shellter. I also have Sysmon & Wazuh III. GAME OVER

After the first two posts of the story [1] [2] where we told you about Johnny’s intentions and John’s security, in this post we are going to tell you the outcome, and give you an idea of the two characters in the story.

Johnny:

“Here I am, waiting for my boss to execute the “program” that he has asked me for and that I have prepared for him with special affection”. [Read more…]

Evading AV with Shellter. I also have Sysmon and Wazuh II

After what was seen in the first post of this story in this one we will keep telling you what happens and we will meet the boss. Put yourselves again in that situation that Johnny told us about in the first part.

“Hello, allow me to introduce myself. I’m John, Johnny’s boss. I am aware that I have many enemies among which are surely my competitors or even my own employees. Physically, no one can touch me, I always go with my bodyguards. But technologically, anyone could try to attack my team with the objective of stealing valuable information”.

That’s why, in addition to the corporate antivirus, I decided to add one more layer of security on my computer with Sysmon & Wazuh. [Read more…]

Evading AV with Shellter. I also have Sysmon and Wazuh I

I suggest imagining the following fictitious situation:

I am Johnny, a disgruntled employee. My boss has exploited me, he does not stop sending me tasks, he does not pay me the extra hours and, in addition, he never thanks me for the work I do … One day, fed up with the situation, I said to myself: “he’s going to find out what’s what”. And I started planning: I’m going to hack his computer and steal all the sensitive information he has. But how? After thinking the matter over: I know! I’m going to see if in the results of the internal vulnerability audits, to which I have access, his computer has some security flaw that can be exploited.
Darn! He has everything patched … and I don’t have any money for a 0 day. What I can do?

One day my boss asked me if I knew of any free program to decompress files in Windows operating systems and… [Read more…]

Web auditing: Jump on the bandwagon! (or not)

Usually, whenever we are auditing a web application with a poorly programmed backend, we might  find SQL Injection vulnerabilities. We will mainly encounter Blind, Error-based or -if we get lucky- Union-based injections. However, it is not quite usual to find an SQLi out-of-band vulnerability.

These do not only rely on a vulnerable application, but also on being able to exfiltrate information from a different band than the website.

The fact that the results are sent through a completely different way, along with the variety of shapes that these may take; makes it quite difficult to use automated tools to exploit these kinds of vulnerabilities. Even so, in situations where the server responses are not stable or  are too unreliable, it might be worth trying to exfiltrate information this way.

As an example, lets take a look at an injection found in an audit I performed recently.

This time, the vulnerability was quite weird, as the name of the parameter was sql*** –which shouted injection from miles away- but the website itself wasn’t either returning any errors nor  being affected by time-based techniques. Yet, our best friend Burp active scan seemed convinced that an SQLi was going on at that specific parameter.
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