MOSH, beyond SSH

Today, I do not think it necessary to mention what the SSH (Secure Socket Shell) protocol is, since it would be really difficult to live without it today. Therefore, SSH is considered globally as the “mega” indispensable tool for any administration work. Among the advantages of its use we can find: secure access to remote machines, access to services on other machines by creating direct or reverse tunnels, creation of proxy socks, creation of secure channels for the encapsulation of traffic from unsecured applications … etc.

Among the innumerable advantages of this protocol, there is a point that can sometimes be a great inconvenience, the performance of the connection.

To try to solve this problem and add improvements, Mosh (mobile shell) emerged, an application that offers several advantages over the traditional SSH connection. It was presented at the USENIX Annual Technical Conference 2012 by Keith Winstein & Hari Balakrishnan, M.I.T. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

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Mirai meets OpenSSL

It is not a surprise that new variants of Mirai and more come to light, being available to anyone the source code of the bot, the CnC server and the download server. However, they all had relatively similar features (except for the variant for Windows, of course).

On March 19 came a new version of Mirai that caught our attention because of its size. While the usual is to find Mirai binaries of around tens of Kbs, this new sample has 1.6 Mbs. The TELNET connection that preceded the download of the binary is exactly the same as in previous catches.
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Shadow Brokers: exploiting Eternalblue + Doublepulsar

(Just one month after publishing this post in spanish, these exploits were used in conjunction with the WanaCry ransomware to perform one of the largest worldwide cyber attacks of the last few years.
Hundreds of companies (Hospitals too) were compromised and all their data was encrypted.)

A few days ago the news broke out that the group Shadow Brokers had released a new batch of exploits of the NSA. As if this were not enough, in the github where the exploits are there is also information on how to attack the banking systems.

The vast majority of published exploits make compromising a Windows system childlike and almost as we see in movies, since they are several 0-day (now patched by Microsoft) that attack the SMB protocol in all its versions.

Of all the exploits available, the one that has drawn the most attention to the community has been the combo called Eternalblue + Doublepulsar. In this post we will explain how to deploy a test environment where you can test the exploits.

(Editor’s note: Needless to say, the information is provided for informational and didactic purposes in order to collaborate in improving the knowledge of cybersecurity technicians. Cybercriminals do not need anyone to teach them how to use exploits, and to those unsuspecting scriptkiddies who think of playing cybercriminals, well, good luck in the courts).
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The Russian ICC (IX): APT groups

russian-malware-analysis-temp-770x513We have talked so far about the main services that make up the Russian intelligence community in its cyber domain and we will continue to describe in successive posts the rest of the complex Russian ecosystem but, where are the allegedly Russian APTs? Groups known to everyone, such as APT28 (FancyBear, Sofacy …) or APT29 (CozyBear, The Dukes …), must be somehow related to this community … if they are not part of it, right?... Leer Más

The Russian ICC (VIII): GRU

gru_emblemThe only major Russian service which, as we have indicated, is not a direct heir of the KGB is the GRU (Glavnoye Razvedyvatelnoye Upravlenie), military unit 44388, whose aim is to provide intelligence to the Ministry of Defense, the military leadership and Russian armed forces as a whole. This service is dedicated to military intelligence, from strategic to operational, working not only in an exclusive sense of defense, but also encompassing other aspects such as politics or economy linked to the military sphere, and especially foreign intelligence – sometimes with the SVR. Since 1996, it has been entrusted with the mission of acquiring information on ecology and the environment. In order to execute these tasks, the GRU has all kinds of capabilities, from IMINT to HUMINT, through OSINT and, of course, SIGINT, capabilities that give it a sphere of action and international influence and that allow the GRU to “act in any point of the world where the need might arise, “according to statements by General Valentin Vladimirovich Korabelnikov, in an interview granted in 2006, when he was Director of GRU.... Leer Más

The Russian ICC (VII): FSO

e1470_fsoAnother of the heirs of the FAPSI is the FSO (Federal’naya Sluzhba Okhrani), identified in [1] as military unit 32152 and headed since May of this year by Major General Dmitry Kochnev (his predecessor, Evgeny Murov, was General of the Army, two ranks higher, and this in the Russian services is very important). Murov obtained very important FAPSI attributions: with more than 20,000 troops today (supposedly, since it is classified information, and various sources speak of more than 50,000), the FSO inherited and expanded the KGB’s Ninth Address, with responsibility for the protection of governmental “goods”, in the broadest sense of the word. For example, the Presidential Security Service, the PBS-Putin’s bodyguards, or control of the famous Russian nuclear briefcase depend on the FSO, as well as the operation of a secure network for the transmission of election results, GAS Vybory (Information is, obviously, an asset to be protected). Specifically, from a cyber point of view, this service has assumed, among other capacities, those associated with strategic SIGINT, the guarantee of exploitation of state systems – especially regarding its protection against foreign services – and the security of National classified information ([2]), which includes presidential communications: the FSO provides secure communications at a very high level, for example between the Kremlin and the main Russian military commanders, giving it enormous control power for the control of information …... Leer Más

What is a TDS (Traffic Director System)?

The idea to write this post came from investigating multiple cases of infections in computers because of the ubiquitous Exploit Kits (EK). A visit to a website that apparently should not carry any risk ended with the user calling the security service because he could not open his files and said that an image appeared on the screen asking him for money to recover his data. And in other cases not even that, because he had become infected with a RAT or a banking Trojan and was not aware of it.

There are simple redirection methods that are implemented directly on the web server. They are options that allow to manage the visits to this website and adapt its behavior to the preferences or characteristics of the visitors.

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Is your NAS exposed to the Internet?

The widespread use of devices connected to the network, such as cars, medical equipment, industrial controllers (PLCs), appliances, etc., has brought with it a new and extremely vulnerable landscape.

While there has been a breakthrough in connectivity issues (Twitter is everywhere!), the security issue has also been set aside. This is mainly due to the fact that for most users and organizations, Internet security is not a fundamental factor, which is why cases such as Mirai, one of the largest distributed denial of service attacks that has been recorded so far, which is just one of the first cases that we have to face in this new scenario..

The proliferation of interconnected devices has brought many advantages to users (homes, organizations): flexibility, mobility, automation, efficiency, etc., but what happens when we do not take the appropriate security measures and are unprotected by default?

You will then see how a series of small weaknesses can lead to a large leak of information, compromising personal, financial and confidential data, both private and organizational.

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The Russian ICC (VI): SVR

150px-svrlogoThe SVR (Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki) was the first heir of the KGB with its own entity, inheriting the attributions of the First General Directorate; is responsible for Russian foreign intelligence, providing the national authorities with intelligence that can benefit Russia in different areas that have evolved from the military and defense (especially the 1990s) to technological, industrial, scientific and economic areas. To achieve this goal the SVR is based primarily on HUMINT capabilities, both open and clandestine, theoretically relying on the GRU -which we will see in a coming post- for its signals intelligence needs.

In this SIGINT area the SVR works together with the GRU in strategic intelligence (at least in theory, since the rivalry between Russian agencies is well known: let us remember the “joint” operation of the SVR with the GRU of the SIGINT station in Lourdes, Cuba), as opposed to the more operative intelligence of the FSB; the main objective of the SVR, irrespective of the discipline used, is the acquisition of information and development of intelligence about the capabilities, actions, plans, intentions… both real and potential of third countries against the vital interests of the Russian Federation (as we have mentioned, even economic ones).

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(Cyber) III Cold War: Hack the vote?

As you now, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) along with the ODNI (Office of the Director of National Intelligence) formally accused Russia of meddling in the past US presidential elections with techniques from the burning information warfare and various cyberattacks. Let’s take a (somewhat delayed) look at this.
It is not the first time that USA launches accusations of this caliber, it did so when it accused China of stealing trade secrets in 2014. An accusation of this kind could involve, officially or unofficially, attacks on Russian IT infrastructures that posed a headache for Putin and his allies. According to statements in the NYT taking this type of action would involve too much risk with elections less than a month away; cyberattacks by a power like Russia against the US electronic voting system could wreak havoc. It should also be noted that the electoral system is still not considered a critical infrastructure of the nation, although it may increase their criticality shortly.
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